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Cervical cancer and its treatment

Staging of cervical cancer is important, as it helps to determine the most effective type of treatment and to determine the degree of spread of cancer if it has reached nearby structures or distant organs. The cervical cancer staging system is divided into four stages, namely:

The first stage

Cancer cells have grown, migrated from the surface to the deeper tissues of the cervix and may have spread to the uterus and nearby lymph nodes.

The second phase

In which cancer cells move and spread beyond the cervix and uterus, but have not yet reached the pelvic walls or the lower part of the vagina, they may or may not affect nearby lymph nodes.

third level

Cancer cells spread in the lower part of the vagina or in the walls of the pelvis, and it is possible that they block the ureters, which are the tubes that work to transport urine from the bladder, which makes them affect the nearby lymph nodes in some cases.

The fourth stage

In which cancer cells affect the bladder or rectum, and their growth is outside the pelvis, but may or may not affect the lymph nodes, except that later in the fourth stage, cancer cells will spread to distant organs, which usually include: liver, lungs, bones, in addition to lymph nodes .

It is worth knowing that undergoing an examination and receiving appropriate medical care in the event that any of the symptoms appear leads to early treatment and an increase in the chance of survival.

Early symptoms of cervical cancer

Symptoms of stage I cervical cancer may include:

Watery or bloody vaginal discharge, which may be heavy and have an unpleasant odor.

Hidden bleeding occurs after sexual intercourse, between menstrual periods, or after reaching menopause.

Menstrual periods are heavier and last longer than usual.

If the cancer has spread to nearby tissues or organs, symptoms may include:

Difficulty urinating, accompanied by pain, sometimes with blood in the urine.

Pain, diarrhea or rectal bleeding when defecating.

Fatigue, loss of appetite and weight

A general feeling of lethargy and illness.

Mild back pain or swelling in the legs.

Feeling pain in the pelvis or abdomen.

If you have abnormal bleeding, vaginal discharge, or any other unexplained symptoms, you should have a complete gynecological examination that includes a Pap test.

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